Brooding: means an application of heat to the birds at early part of their life and care of young chicks by provision of optimum environment.
REASON FOR BROODING
– Brooding provides extra heat from external sources
– chicks will not take sufficient feeds and water if they are provided with high or low temperature
– Proper brooding help in constant growth of birds, poor brooding leads to retardation in growth
– poor brooding will no allow Chicks to digest the yolk leading to omphalitis
– Proper booding eradicate early mortality in chicks.
ESSENTIAL KEYS IN BROODING
-Pre-Placement Preparation (PPP)
– Feed and water Management
– Temperature Management
-Air management (cross ventilation)
A. PRE-PLACEMENT PREPARATION (PPP)
-Brooding house MUST be cleaned thoroughly
– The floor should be soaked preferable with a strong
-Curtains used should be soaked in disinfectant and hanged in the sun to dry
– Feeders and drinkers should be washed and disinfected, then sun-dry for 2 days
– Arrange all equipment in the house
-Prepare the brooder ring or brooder space and Spread the litter,
-Fix the curtains on the open sides
– Disinfect the brooder using a good quality disinfectant
– Provide foot baths at the entrance with a disinfectant e.g. Kerol, vinkol, lysol, morigard
-Brooder should be ready prior to fumigation
– Litter material filled up to
4 inches thick from the floor
– You may Spread newspapers on the floor to cover the litter and you may not.
– Place the heat source at the centre of the brooder ring.
B. FEED AND WATER MANAGEMENT
-Use supplemental feeder trays at placement to help
chicks get off to the best start possible
– Feeding trays should be provided at the rate of 1 tray per 40 chicks Or thereabout
-Place feeder trays between the drinkers
-Extra feeders should be provided for the from day 1 to 14
– provide clean water for the chick
– crops of chicks should be checked in the morning after placement to ensure they have found feed and water.
– A minimum of 95% of the crops should feel soft and pliable indicating chicks have successfully located feed and water.
-Hard crops indicate chicks have not found adequate water and water availability should be checked immediately.
-Swollen and distended crops indicate chicks have located water but
insufficient feed and in this case the availability and consistency of the
feed should be immediately evaluated.
C. LIGHT MANAGEMENT
– Continuous lighting should be provided for the first
48-72 hours post placement.
– It is highly recommended that all rearing houses use
-light duration ( day 1-3 =23hrs, day 4 – 7= 22hrs, day 8-14 = 20hrs, day 15 – 21= 19hrs, day 22-28=18hrs
-Evening is the best time to observe the chicks and make
-Thermometers may not always be available, hence we use the behaviour of chicks as a guide.
E. AIR AND VENTILATION MANAGEMENT
-Cross Ventilation should be provided for optimum comfort of the chicks
-Free moving spaces should be provided all around the
feeders and drinkers, so that the chicks can feed and drink.