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In our last lession, that is “Poultry as a business 9”, we formulated feed based on one energy source and one protein source, the feed formulated may be very good but it is not cost effective, that is the price is on the high side, that would defeat the aim of self milling, we are in the industry where the customer detects price for the farmer not minding the high cost of input.

In other to reduce cost of milling feed, there is the need to include feed material of lesser price, that is using energy feedstuff of two or more sources, likewise same for protein material.

In our last lesson, we arrived at the following;
Maize: 60.85 kg (60.85%)
Soya bean meal: 33.15 kg (33.15)
Non crude Protein material : 6kg (6%). (Please check the last lesson).

In today’s lession, we shall reduce the quantity of maize (energy) and soya bean meal (protein ) and replaced with other energy and protein sources.

In previous lesson (poultry as a business (8)), I listed and explained some criteria you put into consideration when choosing your feed materials, they included
1. Cost of feed material.
2. Nutrient quality of feed material.
3. Constant nutrient composition.
4. Fibre content
5. Physical form

For energy source: it is important to know that maize or wheat seed should be included, depending on which is readily available in your location, both are very good source of energy and meet the criteria listed above and can interchange each other, some countries don’t use maize but wheat seed, any other energy sources can then be added to it.

For our lesson, I shall have the following as my energy sources
1. Maize
2. Wheat offal

For protein source : animal protein, e.g fish meal, happens to be the best in terms of essential amino acid profile but it is very expensive, if you must include it, let it be in small quality in other to curtail the price of feed.

Soya bean, a plant protein is very good and also have good essential amino acid profile.

I shall have the following as my protein sources,
1. Soya bean meal: please bear in mind that full fat soya and soya bean meal does not have the same crude protein. Full fat soya has a lower crude protein because of higher fat content.
2. Groundnut cake: make sure it is of good quality, the oil fully expelled to avoid rancidity in feed.
3. Fish meal.

These are our feedstuff for formulation
1. Maize 10% c.p
2. Wheat offal 17% c.p
3. Soya bean meal 48% c.p
4. Groundnut cake 47% c.p
5. Fish meal 52% c.p

Next step
Work out a crude protein that would stand for all the energy feed stuff and one other crude protein that would stand for the protein feedstuff. These combined crude protein
Would then be used in the Pearson square

Energy: from our criteria how would you combine these energy feed materials

Based on the energy and fibre content of the feedstuff, I would make my combination as follows, yours can be different.

Maize 85%
Wheat offal 15%
Maize has a higher energy and lesser fiber content when compared to wheat offal.

Multiply each of the proportion by the c.p of the feed material and add both together.

Maize: 85×10% c.p = 85×(10/100) = 8.5

Wheat offal: 15×17%c.p = 15×(17/100) = 2.55

Add together : 8.5+2.55 =11.05
The combined c.p for the energy feedstuff is 11.05

For protein
How would you do the combination

Soya bean 55%
Groundnut cake 35%
Fish meal 10%

Note: fish meal been very expensive, much emphasy is not laid on it, you may decide not to include it.
Soya bean meal has a higher nutrient composition and lesser fibre content when compared to groundnut cake, hence the need to allot it a greater proportion.

Multiply each by its crude protein

Soya bean meal: 55×48% c.p = 55×(48/100) = 26.40
Groundnut cake: 35×47% c.p = 35×(47/100) = 16.45
Fish meal: 10×52% c.p = 10×(52/100) = 5.20
Add together: 26.40+16.45+5.20= 48.05

We have combined energy feedstuff c.p as 11.15 and combined protein feedstuff as 48.05. These two c.p
Shall be used in the Pearson square.

Remember we are formulating a broiler starter of c.p 22%

Remember we have 4% of the feed material not contributing crude protein. They are;

Bone meal 2.5%
Salt 0.5%
Vit-Mineral premix 0.5%
Lysine 0.3%
Methionine 0.2%

There is an adjustment when compared to the last post on non crude protein material, the bone meal was reduced from 4% to 2.5% as a result of inclusion of fish meal, which also supplies good quantity of calcium and phosphorus, likewise lysine and methionine.

Since not all the feed material supply crude protein but only 96% of the feed meterial supply crude protein, hence the need to make adjustment for the centre crude protein of Pearson square

96% = 22 c.p
100% = (22/96)×100= 22.92

We have combined energy c.p as 11.05, combined protein c.p as 48.05 and adjusted c.p of
22.92 at the centre as shown in the diagram below

Subtract diagonally to get the new energy c.p and protein c.p and add together as shown in the diagram

We now have the new energy c.p as 25.13 and new protein c.p as 11.87

We have to work out the proportion of the materials in the new energy c.p and new protein c.p

Hope you still remember the proportion we gave the materials in the early stage
For energy: maize 85, wheat offal 15
For protein: soya meal 55, groundnut cake 35, fish meal 10

From the new energy c.p of 25.13

Maize: (85/100)×25.13 = 21.36
Wheat offal: (15/100)×25.13 = 3.77

From the new protein c.p of 11.87

Soya meal: (55/100)×11.87 = 6.53
Groundnut cake: (35/100)×11.87 = 4.15
Fish meal: (10/100)×11.87 = 1.19

Calculate the quality of each of the feed material that would make up 96% ingredients that contribute crude protein to the feed

Maize: (21.36/37)×96 = 55.42
Wheat offal: (3.77/37)×96 = 9.78
Soya meal: (6.53/37)×96 = 16.94
Groundnut cake: (4.15/37)×96 = 10.77
Fish meal: (1.19/37)×96 =3.09

From our calculations, the following should be the ingredients composition in a broiler starter feed of 22% c.p

1. Maize: 55.42% 55.42kg
2. Wheat offal: 9.78% 9.78kg
3. Soya meal: 16.94% 16.94kg
4. Groundnut cake: 10.77% 10.77kg
5. Fish meal: 3.09% 3.09kg
6. Bone meal: 2.50% 2.50kg
7. Salt: 0.50% 0.50kg
8. V.M.P: 0.50% 0.50kg
9. Lysine: 0.30% 0.30kg
10. Methionine : 0.20% 0.20kg

In the last lesson, I explained how to mix the ingredients manually , mixing properly is very important, if not properly mixed, the birds would not be able to get all the nutrients in the right proportion, hence may suffer nutrient deficiency.


Wish you the best


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